Neonicotinoid Insecticides Studies

The following is a list of peer reviewed studies that have found health and/or environmental harm from neonicotinoid insecticides:

Bryden, J., Gill, R. J., Mitton, R. A., Raine, N. E., & Jansen, V. A. (2013). Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure. Ecology letters16 (12), 1463-1469.


Byrne, F. J., Visscher, P. K., Leimkuehler, B., Fischer, D., Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. and Morse, J. G. (2014), Determination of exposure levels of honey bees foraging on flowers of mature citrus trees previously treated with imidacloprid. Pest. Manag. Sci., 70: 470–482. doi: 10.1002/ps.3596


Carrillo, M. P., Bovi, T. D. S., Negrão, A. F., & Orsi, R. D. O. (2013). Influence of agrochemicals fipronil and imidacloprid on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybees. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences35 (4), 431-434.


Chensheng, L. U., Warchol, K. M., & Callahan, R. A. (2014). Sub-lethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disorder. Bulletin of Insectology67 (1), 125-130.;jsessionid=7E5BA16AA3B1EF35E5907369E6CF05ED


Decourtye, A., Lacassie, E., & Pham‐Delègue, M. H. (2003). Learning performances of honeybees (Apis mellifera L) are differentially affected by imidacloprid according to the season. Pest management science59 (3), 269-278.


Derecka K, Blythe MJ, Malla S, Genereux DP, Guffanti A, et al. (2013) Transient Exposure to Low Levels of Insecticide Affects Metabolic Networks of Honeybee Larvae. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68191. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068191


Desneux, N., Decourtye, A., & Delpuech, J. M. (2007). The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol.52 , 81-106.


Di Prisco, Gennaro, Valeria Cavaliere, Desiderato Annoscia, Paola Varricchio, Emilio Caprio, Francesco Nazzi, Giuseppe Gargiulo, and Francesco Pennacchio. (2013) Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  110, no. 46 (2013): 18466-18471.


Douglas, M. R., Rohr, J. R., Tooker, J. F. (2015), EDITOR’S CHOICE: Neonicotinoid insecticide travels through a soil food chain, disrupting biological control of non-target pests and decreasing soya bean yield. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52: 250–260. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12372


Eiri, D. M., & Nieh, J. C. (2012). A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist affects honey bee sucrose responsiveness and decreases waggle dancing. The Journal of experimental biology215 (12), 2022-2029.


Gibbons, D., Morrissey, C., & Mineau, P. (2015). A review of the direct and indirect effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on vertebrate wildlife. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(1), 103-118.


Gill, R. J., Ramos-Rodriguez, O., & Raine, N. E. (2012). Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual-and colony-level traits in bees. Nature , 491 (7422), 105-108.


Gill, R. J., Raine, N. E. (2014), Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure. Functional Ecology, 28: 1459–1471. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12292


Girolami, Vincenzo, L. Mazzon, A. Squartini, N. Mori, M. Marzaro, A. di Bernardo, M. Greatti, C. Giorio, and A. Tapparo. (2009) Translocation of neonicotinoid insecticides from coated seeds to seedling guttation drops: a novel way of intoxication for bees.” Journal of economic entomology  102, no. 5 (2009): 1808-1815.


Goulson, D. (2013), REVIEW: An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50: 977–987. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12111;jsessionid=7CDB0ED081F4FB728B65729A9EEA676F.d01t01


Dave Goulson (2015) Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment.  PeerJ 3:e854; DOI 10.7717/peerj.854


Hatjina, F., Papaefthimiou, C., Charistos, L., Dogaroglu, T., Bouga, M., Emmanouil, C., & Arnold, G. (2013). Sublethal doses of imidacloprid decreased size of hypopharyngeal glands and respiratory rhythm of honeybees in vivo.Apidologie44 (4), 467-480.

Henry, M., Beguin, M., Requier, F., Rollin, O., Odoux, J. F., Aupinel, P., … & Decourtye, A. (2012). A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science336 (6079), 348-350.

Krupke CH, Hunt GJ, Eitzer BD, Andino G, Given K (2012) Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029268


Laurino, D., Porporato, M., Patetta, A., & Manino, A. (2011). Toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to honey bees: laboratory tests. Bull Insectol64 (1), 107-113.


Matsumoto, T., & CANALI, S. (2013). Reduction in homing flights in the honey bee Apis mellifera after a sublethal dose of neonicotinoid insecticides. Bulletin of Insectology66 , 1.


Moffat, Christopher, Joao Goncalves Pacheco, Sheila Sharp, Andrew J. Samson, Karen A. Bollan, Jeffrey Huang, Stephen T. Buckland, and Christopher N. Connolly. (2015) Chronic exposure to neonicotinoids increases neuronal vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction in the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris).” The FASEB Journal  (2015): fj-14.


Mommaerts, V., Reynders, S., Boulet, J., Besard, L., Sterk, G., & Smagghe, G. (2010). Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behavior. Ecotoxicology19 (1), 207-215.

Palmer, M. J., Moffat, C., Saranzewa, N., Harvey, J., Wright, G. A., & Connolly, C. N. (2013). Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees. Nature Communications4 , 1634.


Jacob R. Pecenka, Jonathan G. Lundgren (2015) Non-target effects of clothianidin on monarch butterflies.  The Science of Nature, April 2015, 102:19


Rundlöf, Maj, Georg KS Andersson, Riccardo Bommarco, Ingemar Fries, Veronica Hederström, Lina Herbertsson, Ove Jonsson et al.(2015) Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees. Nature 521, no. 7550 : 77-80.


Sanchez-Bayo F, Goka K (2014) Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment. PLoS ONE 9(4): e94482. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094482


Schneider CW, Tautz J, Grünewald B, Fuchs S (2012) RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera . PLoS ONE 7(1): e30023. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030023


Tapparo, A., Marton, D., Giorio, C., Zanella, A., Soldà, L., Marzaro, M., … & Girolami, V. (2012). Assessment of the environmental exposure of honeybees to particulate matter containing neonicotinoid insecticides coming from corn coated seeds. Environmental science & technology46 (5), 2592-2599.


Tremolada, P., Mazzoleni, M., Saliu, F., Colombo, M., & Vighi, M. (2010). Field trial for evaluating the effects on honeybees of corn sown using Cruiser® and Celest xl® treated seeds. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology85 (3), 229-234.

Whitehorn, P. R., O’Connor, S., Wackers, F. L., & Goulson, D. (2012). Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production. Science336 (6079), 351-352.


Williamson, S. M., & Wright, G. A. (2013). Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. The Journal of experimental biology216 (10), 1799-1807.

Wu JY, Anelli CM, Sheppard WS (2011) Sub-Lethal Effects of Pesticide Residues in Brood Comb on Worker Honey Bee (Apis mellifera ) Development and Longevity. PLoS ONE 6(2): e14720. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014720