This compilation is a sample of the scientific references including over 2,000 studies, surveys, and analyses that suggest various adverse impacts and potential adverse impacts of genetically engineered (GE/GMO) crops, foods and related pesticides. This list contains references regarding health impacts, environmental impacts, including impact of non-target organisms (NTOs), resistance of target organisms, pesticide drift, genetic contamination, horizontal gene transfer, unintended effects, as well as references regarding yields, social impact, ethics, economics and regulations. In most cases, links are provided to the abstracts for the references or links to sites where the study can be purchased.

For Glyphosate studies, click on this link.

For Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) studies, click on this link.




  1. Relyea R.A., Schoeppne rN.M., Hoverman J.T. (2005) Pesticides and amphibians : the importance of community context. Ecological Applications 15:11251134.


  1. Relyea, R.A. (2005) The lethal impact of Roundup on aquatic and terrestrial amphibians. Ecological Applications, 15(4):1118-1124.


  1. Relyea, R.A. (2005) The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecol. Appl.15,618627.


  1. Relyea, R. A. (2005) The Lethal Impacts of Roundup and Predatory Stress on Six Species of North American Tadpoles. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48, no. 3 (Apr): 351-57.


  1. Relyea RA (2006) Letters to the editor: The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities: response. Ecol Appl 16(5):2027–2034


  1. Relyea R.A. & Jones D.K. (2009) The toxicity of Roundup Original Max to 13 species of larval amphibians. Environ Toxicol Chem, 28(9):2004-8.


  1. Relyea, Rick A. “Amphibians Are Not Ready for Roundup.” edited by John E. Elliott, Christine A. Bishop and Christy A. Morrissey. Emerging Topics in Ecotoxicology, 267-300: Springer New York, 2011.


  1. Relyea, Rick A. “New Effects of Roundup on Amphibians: Predators Reduce Herbicide Mortality; Herbicides Induce Antipredator Morphology.” Ecological Applications 22, no. 2 (03/01 2012): 634-47.


  1. Reuber MD (1983) Carcinogenicity and toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid. Sci Total Environ. 1983 Dec 1;31(3):203-18.


  1. Reuter H, Menzel G, Pehlke H, Breckling B. (2008) Hazard mitigation or mitigation hazard? Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2008 Oct;15(7):529-35.


  1. Reuter T, Alexander TW, Xu W, Stanford K, McAllister TA (2010) Biodegradation of genetically modified seeds and plant tissues during composting. J Sci Food Agric. Mar 15;90(4):650-7.


  1. Tahereh Rezazadeh, Kh. Aghaiypour, Zohreh Heidari (2013) The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran. Croat. J. Food Sci. Technol. (2013) 5 (2) 92-95


  1. Jonathan M Rhodes (1999) Genetically modified foods and the Pusztai affair BMJ. May 8; 318(7193): 1284.!po=12.5000


  1. Riar, D.S.; Norsworthy, J.K.; Johnson, D.B.; Scott, R.C. & Bagavathiannan, M. (2011)Glyphosate resistance in a Johnsongrass ( Sorghum halepense) biotype from Arkansas. Weed Science, 59, 299-304.


  1. Ribeiro, I. G., & Marin, V. A. (2012). The lack of information on Genetically Modified Organisms in Brazil. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 17(2), 359-368.


  1. Ribeiro, D. N., Nandula, V. K., Dayan, F. E., Rimando, A. M., Duke, S. O., Reddy, K. N., & Shaw, D. R. (2015). Possible glyphosate tolerance mechanism in pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 63(6), 1689-1697.


  1. Richard S, Moslemi S, Sipahutar H, Benachour N, Seralini GE. (2005) Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect. Jun;113(6):716-20.


  1. Donald G. Richards (2010) “Contradictions of the ‘New Green Revolution’: A View from South America’s Southern Cone.,” Globalizations: Vol. 7 : Iss. 4, Article 3.


  1. Silvan Rieben, Olena Kalinina, Bernhard Schmid, and Simon L. Zeller (2011) Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29730.   doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029730


  1. Rieger MA, Lamond M, Preston C, Powles SB, Roush RT (2002) Pollen-mediated movement of herbicide resistance between commercial canola fields. Science 296 (5577):2386-2388.


  1. Rigoli, R. P., L. C. Fontana, S. S. Figueredo, and J. A. Noldin. “Response of Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris) and Carrot (Daucus Carota) to Simulated Glyphosate and Clomazone Drift.” [In Portuguese]. Planta Daninha 26, no. 2 (Apr-Jun 2008): 451-56.


  1. Ripley BJ, KC, Davis BJ, Carter M, Simovich, Toxicity of Malathion and Roundup to the San Diego fairy shrimp. Transa. West. Sec. Wildlife Soc., 2003, 38/39 13-21.




  1. South Risun, Zhang Yandan, Huang Xiaolian (2003) Impact of the herbicide “glyphosate” Loach leukocyte. “Wenzhou Teachers College (Natural Science Edition)” 2003 02


  1. Ritterman, Jeff (2015) América Latina y Monsanto (Fundamentos y Debate) o Latin America and Monsanto. Mundo Siglo XXI. Revista del Centro de Investigaciones Económicas, Administrativas y Sociales del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 10(35): 5-20.


  1. Rivera‐Ferre, M. G. (2009). Response by Marta G. Rivera‐Ferre. EMBO reports, 10(2), 105-107.


  1. Rizzardi, M.A., N.G. Fleck, D. Agostinetto, and A.A. Balbinot Jr. “Herbicide Action in Plant Defence Mechanisms to Pathogens.” Ciencia Rural, Santa Maria 33, no. 5 (2003): 957-65.


  1. Marcel Roberfroid (2014) Letter to the Editor Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 65, March, Pages 390


  1. Roberts DM, Buckley NA, Mohamed F, Eddleston M, Goldstein DA, Mehrsheikh A, Bleeke MS, Dawson AH. (2010) A prospective observational study of the clinical toxicology of glyphosate-containing herbicides in adults with acute self-poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Feb;48(2):129-36.


  1. Elmer Robinson & Lawrence L. Fox (1978) 2,4-D Herbicides in Central Washington Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association   Volume 28, Issue 10,


  1. Claire Robinson, Nina Holland, David Leloup, Hans Muilerman (2013) Conflicts of interest at the European Food Safety Authority erode public confidence J Epidemiol Community Health 67(9) 717-20


  1. Rocha, T. L., dos Santos, A. P. R., Yamada, Á. T., de Almeida Soares, C. M., Borges, C. L., Bailão, A. M., & Sabóia-Morais, S. M. T. (2015). Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology.


  1. Rodriguez, Adriana M., and Elizabeth J. Jacobo. (2010) Glyphosate Effects on Floristic Composition and Species Diversity in the Flooding Pampa Grassland (Argentina). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 138, no. 3–4 : 222-31.


  1. Rodriguez, A. M., Jacobo, E. J. (2013), Glyphosate effects on seed bank and vegetation composition of temperate grasslands. Applied Vegetation Science, 16: 51–62.


  1. Rohini RS, Mallapur CP, Udikeri SS. (2009) Incidence of mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) on Bt cotton in Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 22: 680–681.


  1. José L. Domingo Roig, Mercedes Gómez Arnáiz (2000) RIESGOS SOBRE LA SALUD DE LOS ALIMENTOS MODIFICADOS GENÉTICAMENTE: UNA REVISION BIBLIOGRAFICA Rev. Esp. Salud Publica vol.74 n.3 Madrid May./Jun.


  1. Rojano-Delgado AM, Cruz-Hipolito H, De Prado R, Luque de Castro MD, Franco AR. (2012) Limited uptake, translocation and enhanced metabolic degradation contribute to glyphosate tolerance in Mucuna pruriens var. utilis plants. Phytochemistry. Jan;73(1):34-41.


  1. Rollin BE. (2006) Food safety–who is responsible? Foodborne Pathog Dis. Summer;3(2):157-62.


  1. Romano RM, Romano MA, Bernardi MM, Furtado PV, Oliveira CA. (2010) Prepubertal exposure to commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate alters testosterone levels and testicular morphology.   Arch Toxicol. Apr;84(4):309-17.


  1. Romano MA, Romano RM, Santos LD, Wisniewski P, Campos DA, de Souza PB, Viau P, Bernardi MM, Nunes MT, de Oliveira CA. (2012) Glyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression. Arch Toxicol. Apr;86(4):663-73.


  1. Romano RM, Souza PB, Nunes MT, Romano MA (2012) Perinatal exposure to a commercial formulation of glyphosate reduces the mRNA expression and increases the protein content of beta TSH in the pituitary of male offspring. Endocr Abstr 29:P75


  1. Marco A. Romano, Renata M. Romano (2012) Reply to comment of John M. DeSesso and Amy L. Williams regarding “Glyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression” by Romano et al. 2012 Archives of Toxicology November, Volume 86, Issue 11, pp 1795-1797


  1. Römbke, J., Jänsch, S., Meier, M., Hilbeck, A., Teichmann, H. and Tappeser, B. (2010), General recommendations for soil ecotoxicological tests suitable for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. Integr Environ Assess Manag, 6: 287–300.


  1. Romero, P. C., & Nivia, G. D. (2015). Evaluación de la toxicidad del Roundup en la germinación de semillas de maíz (Zea mays). Ingenium, 9(23), 11-16.


  1. Rosati A, Bogani P, Santarlasci A, Bulatti M (2008) Characterisation of 3′ transgene insertion site and derived mRNAs in MON810 YieldGard maize.PlantMolBiol.67(3): 271-81.


  1. G Kristin Rosendal and Anne Ingeborg Myhr (2009) GMO assessment in Norway: societal utility and sustainable development EMBO Rep. Sep ; 10(9): 939–940.


  1. Rosi-Marshall EJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, Whiles MR, Evans-White M, Chambers C, Griffiths NA, Pokelsek J, Stephen ML. (2007) Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 9;104(41):16204-8.


  1. Emma J. Rosi-Marshall, Jennifer L. Tank, Todd V. Royer, and Matt R. Whiles (2008) Reply to Beachy et al. and Parrott: Study indicates Bt corn may affect caddisflies PNAS February 19, vol. 105 no. 7


  1. Rosset, P. M. (2001), Toward a Political Economy of Opinion Formation on Genetically Modified Foods. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 15: 22–25


  1. Peter M. Rosset (2005) Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis Bulletin of Science Technology Society August vol. 25 no. 4 306-313


  1. Rosset, P. (2006). Genetically modified crops for a hungry world: How useful are they really. Tailoring Biotechnologies, 2(1), 79-94.
  2. Rossi SC, Dreyer da Silva M, Piancini LD, Oliveira Ribeiro CA, Cestari MM, Silva de Assis HC. (2011) Sublethal effects of waterborne herbicides in tropical freshwater fish. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Dec;87(6):603-7.


  1. G.C. Rótolo, C. Francisb, R.M. Cravioto, S. Viglia, A. Pereyrae, S. Ulgiati (2014) Time to re-think the gmo revolution in agriculture Ecological Informatics Available online 10 May 2014


  1. Rótolo, G. C., Francis, C., Craviotto, R. M., & Ulgiati, S. (2015). Environmental assessment of maize production alternatives: Traditional, intensive and GMO-based cropping patterns. Ecological Indicators, 57, 48-60.


  1. A. Roustan, M. Aye, M. De Meo , C. Di Giorgio (2014) Genotoxicity of mixtures of glyphosate and atrazine and their environmental transformation products before and after photoactivation Chemosphere Volume 108, August, Pages 93–100


  1. Rovenska, G., R. Zemek, J.E.U. Schmidt, and A. Hilbeck (2005) Altered host plant preference of Tetranychus urticae and prey preference of its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) on transgenic Cry3Bb-eggplants. Biological Control 33: 293-300.


  1. Rowland Jr., C. D., D. B. Reynolds, and R. H. Blackley, Jr. (1999) Corn and cotton response to drift rates of non-desired herbicide applications. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc


  1. Roy, D.B., Bohan, D.A., Haughton, A.J., Hill, M.O, Osborne, J.L., Clark, S.J., Perry, J.N., Rothery, P., Scott, R.J., Brooks, D.R., Champion, G.T., Hawes, C., Heard, M.S., Firbank, L.G. 2003. Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the farm scale evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 358, 1899–1913.


  1. Rubin J, Tesmenitsky A. (2002) Selling before telling: why the government needs to take a second look at genetically engineered foods. New Solut. ;12(3):297-316.


  1. C. Rubinstein, C. Jone, J. E. Trosko, and C.-C. Chang, (1984) Inhibition of intercellular communication in cultures of chinese hamster V79 cells by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Toxicological Sciences, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 731–739


  1. Rubio, F., Guo, E., & Kamp, L. (2014). Survey of Glyphosate Residues in Honey, Corn and Soy Products. J Environ Anal Toxicol, 4(249), 2161-0525.


  1. Rui YK, Zhang FS, Wang ZR. (2008) [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in transgenic cotton seeds].


  1. Rui Yukui, Wang Wenya, Zhang Fusuo, Lu Yahai, Fazana Rashid, and Liu Qing. (2007) A new kind of fatty acid emerging from transgenic cotton seed. La Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze grasse 84(1):40-43.


  1. Rui, Y., Wang, W., & Chen, L. (2010). Analysis of the composition and concentration of fatty acids in transgenic soybean (cp4-epsps1) oil. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 5(1), 7-10.


  1. Jovani Ruiz-Toledo, Ricardo Castro, Norma Rivero-Pérez, Ricardo Bello-Mendoza, Daniel Sánchez (2014)Occurrence of Glyphosate in Water Bodies Derived from Intensive Agriculture in a Tropical Region of Southern Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, September, Volume 93, Issue 3, pp 289-293.


  1. Rull RP, Ritz B, Shaw GM. (2004) Neural tube defects and maternal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications. .Epidemiology. July, 15(4): S188. 33.


  1. Rull RP, Ritz B, Shaw GM. (2006) Neural tube defects and maternal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications. Am J Epidemiol. Apr 15; 163(8): 743-753.


  1. Russell, A. W., & Sparrow, R. (2008). The case for regulating intragenic GMOs.Journal of agricultural and environmental ethics, 21(2), 153-181.


  1. Piotr Rzymski, Piotr Klimaszyk, Tomasz Kubacki, Barbara Poniedziałek (2014) The effect of glyphosate-based herbicide on aquatic organisms – a case study Limnological Review. Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 215–220


  1. Pierre Sabatier, Jérôme Poulenard, Bernard Fanget, Jean-Louis Reyss, Anne-Lise Develle, Bruno Wilhelm, Estelle Ployon, Cécile Pignol, Emmanuel Naffrechoux, Jean-Marcel Dorioz, Bernard Montuelle, and Fabien Arnaud (2014) Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed. October 13, 2014, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1411512111


  1. SABUGOSA-MADEIRA, B.; ABREU, I.; RIBEIRO, H.; CUNHA, M. Bt Transgenic maize pollen and silent poisoning of the hive. Journal of Apicultural Research, v. 46, n. 1, p. 57-58, 2007.


  1. SABUGOSA-MADEIRA, B. E. R. N. A. R. D. O., & ABREU, I. (2009). O pólen de milho geneticamente modificado. Possíveis implicaçoes no desequilíbrio ecológico das colmeias. Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciencias, 28, 71-85.


  1. Saeglitz C, Pohl M, Bartsch D (2000) Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants. Mol Ecol 9: 2035-2040


  1. Sáenz, M.E. ; Di Marzio, W.D. ; Alberdi, J.L. & del Carmen Tortorelli, M. (1997). Effects of technical grade and a commercial formulation of glyphosate on algal population growth. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 59, 638-644


  1. Saenz, M. E., and W. D. Di Marzio. (2009) Ecotoxicity of Herbicide Glyphosate to Four Chlorophyceaen Freshwater Algae. Limnetica 28, no. 1 Jun: 149-58.


  1. A Sagstad, M Sanden, Ø Haugland, A-C Hansen, P A Olsvik, G-I Hemre (2007) Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. Journal of Fish Diseases Volume 30, Issue 4, pages 201–212


  1. SAGSTAD, A., SANDEN, M., KROGDAHL, Å., BAKKE-McKELLEP, A.M., FRØYSTAD, M. and HEMRE, G.-I. (2008), Organs development, gene expression and health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified soybeans compared to the near-isogenic non-modified parental line. Aquaculture Nutrition, 14: 556–572.


  1. Sailaja KK, Satyaprasad K. (2006) Degradation of glyphosate in soil and its effect on fungal population. J Environ Sci Eng. 2006 Jul;48(3):189-90.


  1. Saji, H. et al. (2005) Monitoring the escape of transgenic oilseed rape around Japanese ports and roadsides. Environ. Biosafety Res., 4, 217–222.


  1. Salbego, J., A. Pretto, C. R. Gioda, C. C. de Menezes, R. Lazzari, J. Radunz Neto, B. Baldisserotto, and V. L. Loro. (2010) Herbicide Formulation with Glyphosate Affects Growth, Acetylcholinesterase Activity, and Metabolic and Hematological Parameters in Piava (Leporinus Obtusidens). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58, no. 3 Apr: 740-5.


  1. Joseânia Salbego, Alexandra Pretto, Vera Maria Machado da Silva, Vania Lucia Loro, Rafael Lazzari, Carolina Rosa Gioda IV , Bernardo Baldisserotto (2014) Glyphosate on digestive enzymes activity in piava (Leporinus obtusidens). Cienc. Rural vol.44 no.9 Santa Maria Sept.


  1. Salvagni, J., R.Z. Ternus, and A.M. Fuentefria. (2011) Assessment of the Genotoxic Impact of Pesticides on Farming Communities in the Countryside of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Biology 34, no. 1 : 122-26.


  1. Samanta, P., Pal, S., Mukherjee, A. K., & Ghosh, A. R. (2014). Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 107, 120-125.


  1. Anthony Samsel and   Stephanie Seneff (2013) Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases Entropy 2013, 15(4), 1416-1463


  1. Anthony SAMSEL and Stephanie SENEFF (2013) Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance Interdiscip Toxicol.; Vol. 6(4): 159–184


  1. Anthony Samsel, Stephanie Seneff (2015) Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies. Surg Neurol Int 2015, 6:45


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  1. Marina Santadino, Carlos Coviella, Fernando Momo (2014) Glyphosate Sublethal Effects on the Population Dynamics of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)   Water, Air, & Soil Pollution November 2014, 225:2207


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  1. Santos, J.B., Ferreira, E.A., Reis, M.R., Silva, A.A., Fialho, C.M.T., Freita, M.A.M. (2007) Avaliação de formulações de glyphosate sobre soja Roundup Ready Planta daninha vol.25 no.1 Viçosa Jan./Mar.


  1. Santos, G., Oliveira, R. S., Constantin, J., Constantin Francischini, A., Machado, M. F.P.S., Mangolin, C. A. and Nakajima, J. N. (2014), Conyza sumatrensis: A new weed species resistant to glyphosate in the Americas. Weed Biology and Management, 14: 106–114.


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  1. Schicktanz, Silke (2006) Ethical Considerations of the Human–Animal-Relationship Under Conditions of Asymmetry and Ambivalence Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, Volume 19, Number 1, February , pp. 7-16(10)


  1. Schinasi L, Leon ME (2014) Non-hodgkin lymphoma and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide chemical groups and active ingredients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Apr 23;11(4):4449-527.


  1. Jörg E. U. Schmidt, Cora U. Braun, Lisa P. Whitehouse, Angelika Hilbeck   (2009) Effects of Activated Bt Transgene Products (Cry1Ab, Cry3Bb) on Immature Stages of the Ladybird Adalia bipunctata in Laboratory Ecotoxicity Testing Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology February Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 221-228


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  1. Schneider, M. I., N. Sanchez, S. Pineda, H. Chi, and A. Ronco. (2009) Impact of Glyphosate on the Development, Fertility and Demography of Chrysoperla Externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Ecological Approach. Chemosphere 76, no. 10 (Sep): 1451-5.


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  1. Nicola Schoenenberger and Luigi D’Andrea (2012) Surveying the occurrence of subspontaneous glyphosate- tolerant genetically engineered Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae) along Swiss railways. Environmental Sciences Europe 2012,24:23


  1. Dina M Schreinemachers (2003) Birth malformations and other adverse perinatal outcomes in four U.S. Wheat-producing states. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 July; 111(9): 1259–1264.


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