This compilation is a sample of the scientific references including over 2,000 studies, surveys, and analyses that suggest various adverse impacts and potential adverse impacts of genetically engineered (GE/GMO) crops, foods and related pesticides. This list contains references regarding health impacts, environmental impacts, including impact of non-target organisms (NTOs), resistance of target organisms, pesticide drift, genetic contamination, horizontal gene transfer, unintended effects, as well as references regarding yields, social impact, ethics, economics and regulations. In most cases, links are provided to the abstracts for the references or links to sites where the study can be purchased.

For Glyphosate studies, click on this link.
For Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) studies, click on this link.




  1. Krzyżowska M, Wincenciak M, Winnicka A, Baranowski A, Jaszczak K, Zimny J, Niemiałtowski M. (2010) The effect of multigenerational diet containing genetically modified triticale on immune system in mice. Pol J Vet Sci. ;13(3):423-30.


  1. Krzys ´ko-Lupicka, T. and Orlik, A. (1997) The use of glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorus or carbon for the selection of soilborne fungal strains capable to degrade this herbicide. Chemosphere, 34: 2601–2605.


  1. Chithprabha Kudlu and Glenn Davis Stone(2013) The Trials of Genetically Modified Food: Bt Eggplant and Ayurvedic Medicine in India Food,Culture Society Volume 16 Issue 1 March pages 21-42




  1. MF Kulik, A. Korniychuk Bugaev VD, Obertyuh UV, OV Khimich, TV Lilyk, Yakov Kulik (2013) Inhibition of growth of sprouts of wheat, triticale and rye influenced by water extraction with GM soy compared with non-GM soy. Bulletin of Agricultural Science. – 2013. – № 6. – P. 21-24.59


  1. Kulik Y.M., , Hawryluk A.T., Rautskyiene V.T., Khymych V.A. Morphological changes of liver, kidneys and adrenal glands of experimental animals in the case of long term feeding with Roundup tolerant genetically modified soya.   Bulletin morphology. – 2014. – № 1. – P. 149-153.


  1. MF Kulik, Kulik NM, SE Obertyuh, BB Hіmіch   Effect of Long-term feeding of transgenic soybean on reproductive capacity of pigs.     Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2015. № 49




  1. Kumar, S., Khodoun, M., Kettleson, E. M., McKnight, C., Reponen, T., Grinshpun, S. A., & Adhikari, A. (2014). Glyphosate-rich air samples induce IL-33, TSLP and generate IL-13 dependent airway inflammation. Toxicology, 325, 42-51.


  1. Kumpatla SP, Chandrasekharan MB, Iyer ML, Li G, HallTC (1998) Genome intruder scanning and modulation systems and transgene silencing. Trends in Plant Science, Vol3,Issue3, March. 97-104.


  1. Kunik T, Tzfira T, Kapulnik Y, Gafni Y, Dingwall C and Citovsky V(2001) Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by Agrobacterium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(4):1871-6.


  1. Kurenbach B, Marjoshi D, Amábile-Cuevas CF, Ferguson GC, Godsoe W, Gibson P, Heinemann JA. 2015. Sublethal exposure to commercial formulations of the herbicides dicamba, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate cause changes in antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. mBio 6(2):e00009-15. doi:10.1128/mBio.00009-15.


  1. Mark E. Kurtz and Joe E. Street (2003) Response of Rice (Oryza sativa) to Glyphosate Applied to Simulate Drift Weed Technology Vol. 17, No. 2 (Apr. – Jun.), pp. 234-238


  1. Kuszler PC. (2006) Biotechnology entrepreneurship and ethics: principles, paradigms, and products. Med Law. Sep;25(3):491-502.


  1. Kuzmin, J. Yu, A. Kuzmin, and N. Pasieshvili (2012) Histological and Hormonal Features of Ovaries in an Experiment at Application of GMO-Soya in Nutrition. Journal of Research. 2012. № 4


  1. Kuznetsov VV, Kulikov AM (2005) Генетически модифицированные организмы и полученные из них продукты: реальные и потенциальные риски [GM risks and derived products: real and potential risks.] Russian chemical journal, 69 (4), 70-83


  1. Kvakkestad, Valborg; Gillund, Froydis; Kjolberg, Kamilla Anette; Vatn, Arild (2007) Scientists’ Perspectives on the Deliberate Release of GM Crops Environmental Values, Volume 16, Number 1, February , pp. 79-104(26)


  1. Kwiatkowska, M., Jarosiewicz, P., & Bukowska, B. (2013). GLIFOSAT I JEGO PREPARATY–TOKSYCZNOŚĆ, NARAŻENIE ZAWODOWE I ŚRODOWISKOWE. Medycyna Pracy, 64(5), 717-729.


  1. Kwon, Y. W. and Kim, D.-S. (2001), Herbicide-resistant genetically-modified crop: its risks with an emphasis on gene flow. Weed Biology and Management, 1: 42–52.


  1. LaChapelle AM, Ruygrok ML, Toomer M, Oost JJ, Monnie ML, Swenson JA, Compton AA, Stebbins-Boaz B. (2007) The hormonal herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, inhibits Xenopus oocyte maturation by targeting translational and post-translational mechanisms. Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Jan;23(1):20-31.


  1. Lai MM. RNA recombination in animal and plant viruses. (1992) Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. ;56(1):61–79.


  1. Laible G, Brophy B, Knighton D, Wells DN. (2007) Compositional analysis of dairy products derived from clones and cloned transgenic cattle. Theriogenology. Jan 1;67(1):166-77.


  1. Pirkko Laitinen, Sari Rämö, Katri Siimes (2007) Glyphosate translocation from plants to soil – does this constitute a significant proportion of residues in soil? Plant and Soil November, Volume 300, Issue 1-2, pp 51-60


  1. Laitinen, P.; Rämö, S.; Nikunen, U.; Jauhiainen, L.; Siimes, K. & Turtola, E. (2009).Glyphosate and phosphorous leaching and residues in boreal sandy soil.   Plant andSoil, 323, 267-283.


  1. R. C. Lajmanovich, M. T. Sandoval, P. M. Peltzer (2003) Induction of Mortality and Malformation in Scinax nasicus Tadpoles Exposed to Glyphosate Formulations Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology   March , Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 0612-0618


  1. Lajmanovich, R.C.; Sandoval, M.T. & Peltzer, P.M. (2005). Induction of mortality and malformation in Scinax nasicus tadpoles exposed to glyphosate formulations. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70, 612-618.


  1. Lajmanovich, Rafael C., Paola M. Peltzer, Celina M. Junges, Andrés M. Attademo, Laura C. Sanchez, and Agustín Bassó. (2010) Activity Levels of B-Esterases in the Tadpoles of 11 Species of Frogs in the Middle Paraná River Floodplain: Implication for Ecological Risk Assessment of Soybean Crops. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 73, no. 7 : 1517-24.


  1. Lajmanovich, R.C.; Attademo, A.M.; Peltzer, P.M.; Junges, C.M. & Cabana, M.C. (2011).Toxicity of four herbicide formulations with glyphosate on Rhinella arenarum(Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles: B-esterases and glutation-S-transferase inhibitors. Archives in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60, 681-689.


  1. Rafael C. Lajmanovich, Celina M. Junges, Andrés M. Attademo, Paola M. Peltzer, Mariana C. Cabagna-Zenklusen, Agustín Basso (2013) Individual and Mixture Toxicity of Commercial Formulations Containing Glyphosate, Metsulfuron-Methyl, Bispyribac-Sodium, and Picloram on Rhinella arenarum Tadpoles Water, Air, & Soil Pollution February , 224:1404


  1. Lajmanovich RC, Cabagna-Zenklusen MC, Attademo AM, Junges CM, Peltzer PM, Bassó A, Lorenzatti E. (2014) Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in tadpoles of the common toad (Rhinella arenarum) treated with the herbicides Liberty® and glufosinate-ammonium. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014 Apr 24.


  1. Lamb DC, Kelly DE, Hanley SZ, Mehmood Z, Kelly SL. (1998) Glyphosate is an inhibitor of plant cytochrome P450: functional expression of Thlaspi arvensae cytochrome P45071B1/reductase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Mar 6;244(1):110-4.


  1. Lancaster SH, Hollister EB, Senseman SA, Gentry TJ. (2010) Effects of repeated glyphosate applications on soil microbial community composition and the mineralization of glyphosate. Pest Manag Sci. Jan;66(1):59-64.


  1. The Lancet (1999) Health risks of genetically modified foods The Lancet, Volume 353, Issue 9167, Page 1811, 29 May


  1. Landry, D.; Dousset, S.; Fournier, J.-C. & Andreux, F. (2005). Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanée, 21-France). Environmental Pollution, 138, 191-200.


  1. Lang A, Vojtech E. (2006) The effects of pollen consumption of transgenic Bt maize on the common swallowtail,Papilio machaon L.(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Basic and Applied Ecology; 7:296-306


  1. Lang A, Lauber É, Darvas B (2007) Early tier tests are not sufficient for GMO risk assessment. Nat Biotechnol 25:35–36


  1. Lang A, Otto M. (2010) A synthesis of laboratory and field studies on the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on non-target Lepidoptera. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 135:121–134.


  1. Lang A, Brunzel S, Dolek M, Otto M, Theißen B (2011) Modelling in the light of uncertainty of key parameters: a call to exercise caution in field predictions of Bt-maize effects. Proc R Soc B 278:980–981


  1. Langiano, V.C. & Martinez, C.B.R. (2008). Toxicity and effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology, 147, 222-231.


  1. Lappe, M.A., Bailey, E.B., Childress, C. and Setchell, K.D.R. (1999) Alterations in clinically important phytoestrogens in genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant soybeans. Journal of Medical Food 1, 241-245.


  1. Lappé M. (2002) Labeling should be mandatory. Nat Biotechnol. Nov;20(11):1081-2


  1. Larsen, K., Najle, R., Lifschitz, A., & Virkel, G. (2012). Effects of sub-lethal exposure of rats to the herbicide glyphosate in drinking water: glutathione transferase enzyme activities, levels of reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation in liver, kidneys and small intestine. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 34(3), 811-818.


  1. Rebecca L Larson, Amy L Hill, Ann Fenwick, Andrew R Kniss, Linda E Hanson and Stephen D Miller (2006) Influence of glyphosate on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium root rot in sugar beet Pest Manag Sci 62:1182–1192


  1. Latham JR, Wilson AK, Steinbrecher RA. (2006) The mutational consequences of plant transformation. J Biomed Biotechnol.;2006(2):25376.


  1. Latham JR, and AK Wilson (2008) Trans-complementation and Synergism in Plants: Implications for Viral Transgenes? Molecular Plant Pathology 9:85-103.


  1. Laugeray A, Herzine A, Perche O, Hébert B, Aguillon-Naury M, Richard O, Menuet A, Mazaud-Guittot S, Lesné L, Briault S, Jegou B, Pichon J, Montécot-Dubourg C and Mortaud S (2014) Pre- and postnatal exposure to low dose glufosinate ammonium induces autism-like phenotypes in mice. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 8:390.


  1. Laughlin KD, Power AG, Snow AA, Spencer LJ. (2009) Risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild Cucurbita pepo. Ecol Appl. 2009 Jul;19(5):1091-101.


  1. Lavigne, C, EK Klein, P Vallee, J Pierre, B Godelle and M Renard. 1998. “A pollen-dispersal experiment with transgenic oilseed rape. Estimation of the average pollen dispersal of an individual plant within a field” Theor Appl Genet. Vol 96 pp 886-896.


  1. Lavigne, C., Klein, E. K., Mari, J.-F., Ber, F. L., Adamczyk, K., Monod, H. and Angevin, F. (2008), How do genetically modified (GM) crops contribute to background levels of GM pollen in an agricultural landscape?. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45: 1104–1113.


  1. Şt. Lazăr, O.C. Vornicu, A.A. Prelipcean (2010) Hopes and deception in transgenic agriculture. Lucrări Ştiinţifice – Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară, Seria Zootehnie 2010 Vol. 54 pp. 180-184;jsessionid=5391DBC4208C139E582B48420A1B8416


  1. Le Curieux-Belfond O, Vandelac L, Caron J, Seralini G E.(2009) Factors to consider before production and commercialization of aquatic genetically modified organisms: the case of transgenic salmon. Environ Sci Policy; 12: 170-89.


  1. Heidi Ledford (2013) Hunt for mystery GM wheat hots up Nature   Volume:499, Pages:262–263 (18 July)


  1. Lee, L.J. & Ngim, J. (2000). A first report of glyphosate-resistant goosegrass (2000) Elusine indica(L)Gaertn) in Malaysia. Pest Management Science, 56, 336-339.;2-8/abstract


  1. Lee, D. R.; Miller, D. K.; Blouin, D. C.; Clewis, S. B.; Everman, W. J. (2009) Glyphosate-resistant soybean interference in glyphosate-resistant cotton. Journal of Cotton Science Vol. 13 No. 2 pp. 178-182;jsessionid=3C92FE69144D9395021A4907E3EF28FE


  1. Lee, B., Kim, C.G., Park, J.Y., Park, K.W., Kim, H.J., Yi, H., Jeong, S.C., Yoon, W.K., Kim, H.M. (2009) Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified soybean and maize in cultivated fields and along the trans- portation routes of the Incheon Port in South Korea. Food Control, 20(3): 250-254.


  1. Lee HL, Kan CD, Tsai CL, Liou MJ, Guo HR. (2009) Comparative effects of the formulation of glyphosate-surfactant herbicides on hemodynamics in swine. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Aug;47(7):651-8.


  1. Leeder SR. (2000) Genetically modified foods–food for thought. Med J Aust. Feb 21;172(4):173-4.


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  1. Eric Lefol, Alain Fleury, Henri Darmency (1996) Gene dispersal from transgenic crops Sexual Plant Reproduction July , Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 189-196


  1. Lefol, E, G Seguin-Swartz and RK Downey (1997) Sexual hybridisation in crosses of cultivated Brassica species with the crucifers Erucastrum gallicum and Raphanus raphanistrum: Potential for gene introgression Euphytica Vol. 95(2) pp. 127-139


  1. Légère A. (2005) Risks and consequences of gene flow from herbicide-resistant crops: canola (Brassica napus L) as a case study. Pest Manag Sci. Mar;61(3):292-300.


  1. Amalia Leguizamón (2013) Modifying Argentina: GM soy and socio-environmental change Geoforum, Available online 2 May 2013


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  1. Leon, R. G., Ferrell, J. A., & Brecke, B. J. (2014). Impact of Exposure to 2, 4-D and Dicamba on Peanut Injury and Yield. Weed Technology, 28(3), 465-470.


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  1. Lerat S, Gulden RH, Hart MM, Powell JR, England LS, Pauls KP, Swanton CJ, Klironomos JN, Trevors JT. (2007) Quantification and persistence of recombinant DNA of Roundup Ready corn and soybean in rotation. J Agric Food Chem. Dec 12 ; 55(25): 10226-10231.


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  1. Leslie, T., & Baucom, R. S. (2014). De Novo Assembly and Annotation of the Transcriptome of the Agricultural Weed Ipomoea purpurea Uncovers Gene Expression Changes Associated with Herbicide Resistance. G3: Genes| Genomes| Genetics, 4(10), 2035-2047.


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