Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Studies

Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Studies


Genetic Contamination/Volunteers/Superweeds/Coexistence





Secondary Pest Infestations

Target resistance

Non-target organisms

Need to Be Categorized

Genetic Contamination/Volunteers/Superweeds/Coexistence

Alvarez-Morales A (2002) Transgenes in maize landraces in Oaxaca: official report on the extent and implications.   The 7th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Beijing, China October 10-16 page 65

Bjørgaas, H. H. (2013). 14013-Case study from Santa Catarina, Brazil: GM contamination detected in maize variety. Cadernos de Agroecologia, 8(2).

Cao, D., Stewart, C. N., Zheng, M., Guan, Z., Tang, Z. X., Wei, W., & Ma, K. P. (2014). Stable Bacillus thuringiensis transgene introgression from Brassica napus to wild mustard B. juncea. Plant Science, 227, 45-50.

George A. Dyer, J. Antonio Serratos-Hernández, Hugo R. Perales, Paul Gepts, Alma Piñeyro-Nelson, Angeles Chávez, Noé Salinas-Arreortua, Antonio Yúnez-Naude, J. Edward Taylor, and  Elena R. Alvarez-Buylla (2009) Dispersal of Transgenes through Maize Seed Systems in Mexico. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5734.  doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0005734

Galeano, Pablo, Debat, Claudio Martínez, Ruibal, Fabiana, Fraguas, Laura Franco and Galván, Guillermo A. (2010) Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non- genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay. Env Bio safety Res Vo l9(3):147-154

Glaum, P., & Vandermeer, J. (2015). Potential for and consequences of naturalized Bt products: Qualitative dynamics from indirect intransitivities. Ecological Modelling, 299, 121-129.

Halfhill, Matthew D., et al. “Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.” Environmental Biosafety Research 1 (2002): 19-28.

Macilwain, C. (2005). News: Stray seeds had antibiotic-resistance genes. Nature 434: 548.

Park, K.W., Lee, B., Kim, C.G., Kim, D.Y., Park, J.Y., Ko, E.M., Jeong, S.C., Choi, K.F., Yoon, W.K., Kim, H.M. (2010) Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified maize at a grain receiving port and along trans- portation routes in the Republic of Korea. Food Control, 21(4): 456-461.

Snow, A. A., Pilson, D.,  Riesberg, L. H., Paulsen, M. J., & Selbo, S. M. (2003). A BT transgene  reduces herbivory and enhances fecundity in wild sunflower. BioScience, 13,   279-286.

Vacher C, Weis AE, Hermann D, Kossler T, Young C and Hochbert ME (2004) Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape(Brassica rapa). Theor Appl Genet 109(4): 806-14.


Audiseshamma, K., Paramageetham, C., Theja, P. C., Hooda, V., & Babu, G. P. (2014). Influence of Transgenic Bt Crop Root Exudates on Rhizospheric Soil Microflora. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 3(5), 289-294.,%20et%20al.pdf

SUSANNE BAUMGARTE, CHRISTOPH C. TEBBE (2005) Field studies on the environmental fate of the Cry1Ab Bt-toxin produced by transgenic maize (MON810) and its effect on bacterial communities in the maize rhizosphere  Molecular Ecology Volume 14, Issue 8,  pages 2539–2551, July

Blackwood CB, Buyer JS. (2004) Soil microbial communities associated with Bt and non-Bt corn in three soils.  J Environ Qual. May-Jun;33(3):832-6.*

D.Blaise andK R Kranthi (2011):Cry1Ac expression in transgenic Bt cotton hybrids is influenced by soil moisture and depth.  Current Science, Vol101(6)

M. Castaldini, A. Turrini, C. Sbrana, A. Benedetti, M. Marchionni, S. Mocali, A. Fabiani, S. Landi, F. Santomassimo, B. Pietrangeli, M. P. Nuti, N. Miclaus, and  M. Giovannetti (2005) Impact of Bt Corn on Rhizospheric and Soil Eubacterial Communities and on Beneficial Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Experimental Microcosms  Appl Environ Microbiol. November; 71(11): 6719–6729.

Tanya E. Cheeke, Todd N. Rosenstiel and Mitchell B. Cruzan (2012) Evidence of reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in multiple lines of Bt maize  Am. J. Bot. April vol. 99  no.4  700-707

Crecchio, C. & Stotzky, G. (1998) Insecticidal activity and biodegradation of the toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki bound to humic acids from soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30, 463-470.

Dinel H, Schnitzer M, Saharinen M, Meloche F, Paré T, Dumontet S, Lemee L Ambles A (2003). Extractable soil lipids and microbial activity as affected by Bt and Non -Bt Maize grown on a silty clay loam soil. J. Environ. Sci. Health. 38: 211-219.

Donegan, K.K., Palm, C.J., Fieland, V.J., Porteous, L.A., Ganio, L.M., Schaller, D.L., Bucao, L.Q. & Seidler, R.J. 1995. Changes in levels, species, and DNA fingerprints of soil microorganisms associated with cotton expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki endotoxin. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2, 111-124.

Flores S, Saxena D and Stotzky G.(2005) Transgenic Bt plants decompose less in soil than non-Bt plants. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:10731082.

Griffiths B.S, Caul S, Thompson J, Birch A.N.E, Scrimgeour C, Andersen M.N, Cortet J, Messéan A, Sausse C, Lacroix B. & Krogh P.H.(2005) A comparison of soil microbial community structure ,protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb toxin. Plant and Soil 275:135-146.

Icoz I. & Stotzky G. (2008) Fate and effects of insect- resistant Bt crops in soil ecosystems. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40:559-586.

Icoz I, Andow D, Zwahlen C, Stotzky G (2009) Is the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) taken up by plants from soils previously planted with Bt corn and by carrot from hydroponic culture? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:48–58

Jagadish C. Tarafdar, Indira Rathore and Vandana Shiva (2012): Effect of Bt-transgenic cotton on soil biological health.  Applied Biological Research 14(1):15-23

Liu W (2009) Effects of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystems : a review of a 10-year research in China. Front. Agric. China 3(2):190-98

Wenke Liu (2010) Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular

mycorrhizal fungi?  Ecotoxicology vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 229-238

Xiao-gang Li, Biao Liu, Sondre Heia, Dou-dou Liu, Zheng-min Han, Ke-xin Zhou, Jin-jie Cui, Jun-yu Luo, Yang-ping Zheng  (2009) The effect of root exudates from two transgenic insect-resistant cotton lines on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum  Transgenic Research – TRANSGENIC RES , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 757-767

Li XG, Wei Q, Liu B, Alam MS, Wang XX, Shen W, Han ZM. (2013)  Root exudates of transgenic cotton and their effects on Fusarium oxysporum.   Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2013 Jan 1;18:725-33.

Muchaonyerwa P. & Waladde S.M. (2007) Persistence of the pesticidal Bacillus thuringiensis protein expressed in Bt maize plant materials in two soils of the Central Eastern Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 24(1): 26-31.

Mulder C, Wouterse M, Raubuch M, Roelofs W & Rutgers M. (2006) Can transgenic maize affect soil microbial communities?  PLoS Comput Biol. 2006 September; 2(9): e128.

Mulder C, Wouterse M, Rutgers M. & Posthuma L. (2007) Transgenic maize containing the Cry1Ab protein ephemerally enhances soil microbial communities Ambio 36:359-361.

Saxena D, Flores S and Stozsky G (1999) Insecticidal toxin in root exudates from Bt corn. Nature 402:480.

Saxena D., Flores S. & Stotzky G. (2002) Bt toxin is released in root exudates from 12 transgenic corn hybrids representing three transformation events. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34:133-137.

Saxena, D., Flores, S., Stotzky, G. (2002) Vertical movement in soil of insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 34: 111-120.

Saxena D, Stewart CN, Altosaar I, Shu Q & Stotzky G (2004) Larvicidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are released in root exudates of transgenic B.thuringiensis corn, potato, and rice but not of B.thuringiensis canola, cotton, and tobacco. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry 42 (5):383-387.

Seres, A., Kiss, I., Nagy, P., Sály, P., Darvas, B., & Bakonyi, G. (2014). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of Cry3 toxin-producing Bt maize and near isogenic maize. Plant, Soil and Environment, 60(12), 569-573.

Stotzky, G. (2000). Persistence and biological activity in soil of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis and of bacterial DNA bound on clays and humic acids. Journal of Environmental Quality 29: 691-705.

Stotzky G. (2004) Persistence and biological activity in soil of the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis, especially from transgenic plants. Plant and Soil266:77- 89.

Sun C, Wu Z, Zhang Y & Zhang L (2003) Effect of transgenic Bt rice planting on soil enzyme activities. Ying Yong Sgeng Tai Xue Bao 14:2261-2264.

Sun, X, L.J. Chen, Z.J. Wu, L.K. Zhou and H. Shimizu (2006) Soil persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin from transgenic Bt cotton tissues and its effect on soil enzyme activities. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43(5):617- 620.

Tapp H and Stozsky G (1998) Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30(4):471-476.

Venkateswerlu, G. & Stotzky, G. (1992) Binding of the protoxin and toxin proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki and tenebrionis on clay minerals. Curr. Microbiol. 25, 225-233.

A. G. Viktorov (2008) Influence of Bt-plants on soil biota and pleiotropic effect of δ-endotoxin-encoding genes  Russian Journal of Plant Physiology  November, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 738-747

Yuan YG, GeF. (2010) Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals  Ying Yong Sheng Ta iXue Bao.(JournalofAppliedEcology) 21(5):1339-45.

Zhu, W., Lu, H., Hill, J., Guo, X., Wang, H., & Wu, W. (2014). 13C pulse-chase labeling comparative assessment of the active methanogenic archaeal community composition in the transgenic and nontransgenic parental rice rhizospheres. FEMS microbiology ecology, 87(3), 746-756.


Abdo E. M., et al. Chemical Analysis of BT corn  “Mon- 810: Ajeeb-YG®” and its counterpart non-Bt corn “Ajeeb”  IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) e-ISSN: 2278–5736. Volume 4, Issue 1 (Mar.–Apr. 2013), PP 55–60

Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark and Rubens Onofre Nodari (2013) Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil  Proteome Science ,11:46

Ali, S. E. B., Madi, Z. E., Hochegger, R., Quist, D., Prewein, B., Haslberger, A. G., & Brandes, C. (2014). Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis. International journal of molecular sciences, 15(11), 19898-19923.

Dinel H, Schnitzer M, Saharinen M, Meloche F, Paré T, Dumontet S, Lemee L Ambles A (2003). Extractable soil lipids and microbial activity as affected by Bt and Non -Bt Maize grown on a silty clay loam soil. J. Environ. Sci. Health. 38: 211-219.

Poerschmann J, Gathmann A, Augustin J, Langer U and Górecki T.(2005) Molecular composition of leaves and stems of genetically modified Bt and near-isogenic non-Bt maize Characterization of lignin patterns.  Journal of Environmental Quality 34:1508-1518.

Ahmed M. Rayan, Zakarya. S. El-Shamei, Adel A. Shatta, Amal A. Gab-Alla, Eid A. Moussa (2015) Physicochemical properties of starch isolated from genetically modified corn (Ajeeb YG).  Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 2015, 21(1), 53-66

Saxena D and Stotzky G. (2001) Bt corn has a higher lignin content than non-Bt corn.  American Journal of Botany 88: 1704-1706.


E. Abdo, O. Barbary and O. Shaltout, “Feeding Study with Bt Corn (MON810: Ajeeb YG) on Rats: Biochemical Analysis and Liver Histopathology,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 185-195.

Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajima Y. (2003) Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11.  J Anim Sci. 2003 Oct;81(10):2546-51.

Joël Spiroux de Vendômois,  François Roullier,  Dominique Cellier,  Gilles-Eric Séralini (2009) A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health Int J Biol Sci; 5(7):706-726.

de Vendômois JS, CellierD VC, Clair E, Mesnage R, Séralini G-E (2010) Debate on GMOs health risks after statistical findings in regulatory tests. Int J Biol Sci 6:590–598

Dona A, Arvanitoyannis IS. (2009) Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Feb;49(2):164-75.

El-Shamei, Z. S. et al. Histopathological Changes in Some Organs of Male Rats Fed on Genetically Modified Corn (Ajeeb YG). Journal of American Science, 2012;8(10)

Finamore A, Roselli M, Britti S, Monastra G, Ambra R, Turrini A, Mengheri E. (2008) Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice. J Agric Food Chem. Dec 10;56(23):11533-9.

Gab-Alla, A. et al. (2012) Morphological and Biochemical Changes in Male Rats Fed on Genetically Modified Corn (Ajeeb YG). Journal of American Science, ;8(9)

Gu J, Krogdahl Å, Sissener NH, Kortner TM, Gelencser E, Hemre GI, Bakke AM. (2013) Effects of oral Bt-maize (MON810) exposure on growth and health parameters in normal and sensitised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  Br J Nutr.  Apr 28;109(8):1408-23.

Hanusova L., Rehout V., Citek J. (2011)  Transgene Fragments in the Blood and Tissue of Chicken Fed with Genetically Modified Soy and Maize.   Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 2011, Volume : 11, Issue : 2  page 249-256

G I Hemre, A Sagstad, A M Bakke-Mckellep, A Danieli, R Acierno, M Maffia, M FrØYstad, Å Krogdahl, M Sanden (2007) Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize  Aquaculture Nutrition Volume: 13, Issue: 3, Pages: 186-199


Kiliç A, Akay MT.  (2008)  A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation.  Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1164-70.

Hasan Kiliçgün, Cebrail Gürsul, Mukadder Sunar, Gülden Gökşen (2013) The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Rats  J Clin Anal Med ;4(2): 136-9

Kroghsbo S, Madsen C, Poulsen M, Schrøder M, Kvist PH, Taylor M, Gatehouse A, Shu Q, Knudsen I. (2008) Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats. Toxicology. Mar 12;245(1-2):24-34.

Paris K., Aris A, (2010) [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].  Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2010 Dec;38(12):747-53.

A Sagstad, M Sanden, Ø Haugland, A-C Hansen, P A Olsvik, G-I Hemre (2007) Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. Journal of Fish Diseases Volume 30,  Issue 4,  pages 201–212

Séralini GE, Cellier D, de Vendomois JS.(2007) New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. May;52(4):596-602.

Séralini G-E, de Vendômois JS, Cellier D, Sultan C, Buiatti M, GallagherL AM, Dronamraju KR (2009) How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals. Int J Biol Sci 5:438–443

Walsh MC, Buzoianu SG, Gardiner GE, Rea MC, Ross RP, Cassidy JP, Lawlor PG. (2012) Effects of short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize on growth performance, organ morphology and function in pigs Br J Nutr. Feb;107(3):364-71.

Irena M Zdziarski, John W Edwards, Judy Carman, Adrian Jones, Marni Spillanie, Ysabella Van Sebille, Julie I Haynes  (2012) GM feed and its effect on the stomach mucosa of rat.  6th Australian Health and Medical Research Congress 2012

I.M. Zdziarski, J.W. Edwards, J.A. Carmanb, J.I. Haynes (2014) GM crops and the rat digestive tract: A critical review.  Environment International Volume 73, December 2014, Pages 423–433



Moreno-Fierros, L. García, N. Gutiérrez,R. López-Revilla, R.Vázquez-Padrón, RI..(2000).  Intranasal, rectal and intraperitoneal immunization with protoxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis induces compartmentalized serum, intestinal, vaginal and pulmonary immune responses in Balb/c mice.  Microbes Infect 2(8):  885-90;

Qianying Guo, Shuangjia Wang, Yu Wang, Liren Wei, Han Zhu, Lingyan Zhu, Junli Shang, Yong Li,, Junbo Wang (2014) Embryotoxicity of Transgenic Rice TT51 and Cry1Ab Bt Insecticidal Toxin in Rat Post Implantation Whole Embryo Culture.   Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2(3), 115-121.

Vazquez Padron, R.I., Moreno Fierros, L., Neri Bazan, L., De la Riva, G.A. and Lopez Revilla, R. (1999) Intragastric and intraperitoneal administration of Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis induces systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice. Life Sciences 64, 1897-1912.

Vázquez RI, Moreno-FierrosL, Neri-BazanL, DeLaRiva GA, Lopez-Revilla R.(1999) Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 49(6):578-84.

Vazquez-Padron, R.I., Moreno-Fierros, L., Neri-Bazan, L., Martinez-Gil, A.F., de la Riva, G.A. and Lopez-Revilla, R. (2000) Characterization of the mucosal and sytemic immune response induced by Cry1Ac protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 in mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 33, 147-155.

Vazquez Padron, R.I., Gonzalez Cabrera, J., Garcia Tovar, C., Neri Bazan, L., Lopez Revilla, R., Hernandez, M., Morena Fierros, L. and De la Riva, G.A. (2000) Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. kurstaki HD73 binds to surface proteins in the mouse small intestine. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 271, 54-58.


Bernstein IL, Bernstein, J.A., Miller,M., Tierzieva, S., Bernstein, D.I.,Lummus, Z.Selgrade, M.K., Doerfler, D.L., and Seligy,V.L. (1999) Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives. July; 107(7):575582.


R. Mesnage, E. Clair, S. Gress, C. Then, A. Székács, G.-E. Séralini (2013) Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide Journal of Applied Toxicology Volume 33, Issue 7, pages 695–699, July

Secondary Pest Infestations

Hagenbucher S, Wackers FL, Wettstein FE, Olson DM, Ruberson JR, Romeis J.(2013) Pest trade offs in technology : reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  Proc R Soc B  20130042.

Ho, P., & Xue, D. (2008). Farmers’ perceptions and risks of agro-biotechnological innovations in China: ecological change in Bt cotton?. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 7(4), 396-417.

David R. Just, Shenghui Wang, Per Pinstrup-Andersen (2006) ‘Tarnishing Silver Bullets : Bt Technology Adoption, Bounded Rationality and the Outbreak of Secondary Pest Infestations in China’, paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Meeting, Long Beach, California,USA,22-26July

Lu Y, Wu K, Jiang Y, Xia B, Li P, Feng H, Wyckhuys KA, Guo Y. (2010) Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China.  Science. May 28;328(5982):1151-4.

Hui Ma, Ming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Zhongmin Wang, Qi Wang, Hezhong Dong (2014) Comparative incidence of cotton spider mites on transgenic Bt versus conventional cotton in relation to contents of secondary metabolites  Arthropod-Plant Interactions  February, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 1-7

Jane Qiu (2010) GM crop use makes minor pests major problem  Nature  13 May

Rohini RS, Mallapur CP, Udikeri SS. (2009) Incidence of mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) on Bt cotton in Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 22: 680–681.

Then, C. (2010). New pest in crop caused by large scale cultivation of Bt corn. In Large-area Effects of GM-Crop Cultivation. Theorie in der Ökologie 16, B. Breckling and R. Verhoeven, eds. (Frankfurt, Peter Lang), pp. 94-97.

Wang, S., Just, D.R. and Pinstrup-Andersen, P. (2008)’ Bt Cotton and Secondary Pests’, International Journal of Biotechnology 10(2-3):113-21

Jennifer H. Zhao, Peter Ho, Hossein Azadi (2011) Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.  Volume 173, Issue 1-4,pp 985-994

Target resistance(Bt)

Pallava Bagla (2010) Hardy Cotton-Munching Pests Are Latest Blow to GM Crops  Science 19 March : Vol. 327  no. 5972  p. 1439*

Silvia Caccia, Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez, Rod J. Mahon, Sharon Downes, William James, Nadine Bautsoens, Jeroen Van Rie, and  Juan Ferré (2010) Binding Site Alteration Is Responsible for Field-Isolated Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2A Insecticidal Proteins in Two Helicoverpa Species. PLoS ONE 5(4):e9975!po=63.3333

Campagne P, Kruger M, Pasquet R, Le Ru B, Van den Berg J (2013) Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Corn in Busseola fusca. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69675.

Carriere Y, Crowder DW and Tabashnik BE (2010) Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops. Evolutionary Applications (SpecialIssue :Evolution in Agro-Ecosystems) Vol.3,Issue5-6:561-73.

Catangui MA and Berg RK (2006) Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta(Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),as a potential pest of transgenic Cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids in SouthDakota. Environmental Entomology 35:1439-1452.

A. L. B. Crespo, T. A. Spencer, A. P. Alves, R. L. Hellmich, E. E. Blankenship, L. C. Magalhäesa and B. D. Siegfried (2009) On-plant survival and inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in a field-derived strain of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, Pest. Manag. Sci., vol. 65, pp. 1071–1081,

Béla Darvas , Éva Lauber, Judit Kincses, Gyöngyi Vajdics, Judit Juracsek and András Székács (2005) Bt -maize originated Cry1Ab toxin resistant Plodia interpunctella   Abs. Növényvédelmi Tudományos Napok 51 : 9.

Dhurua S and Gujar GT (2011) Field-evolved resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the pinkbollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella(Saunders)( Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae) from India.  Pest Management Science. Vol.67(8):898-903.

Downes S, Parker T and Mahon R (2010) Incipient resistance of Helicoperva punctigera to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II cotton.  PLoSOne5(9):e12567.

Fangneng H, Rogers L B and Xiaoyi W (2007) Resistance of sugarcane borer to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 124(1):117-123.

Juliano Ricardo Farias, David A. Andow, Renato Jun Horikoshi, Rodrigo José Sorgatto, Pablo Fresia, Antonio Cesar dos Santos, Celso Omoto (2014) Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.  Crop Protection Volume 64, October 2014, Pages 150–158

Farias, J. R., Horikoshi, R. J., Santos, A. C., & Omoto, C. (2014). Geographical and Temporal Variability in Susceptibility to Cry1F Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations in Brazil. Journal of Economic Entomology, 107(6), 2182-2189.

Ferro DN (1993) Potential for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis : Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)-a model system.  American Entomologist 39:38-44. Potential_for_Resistance_to_Bacillus_thuringiensis_Colorado_Potato_Beetle_(Coleoptera_Chrysomelidae)A_Model_System

Fox JL (1996) Bt cotton infestations renew resistance concerns.  Nature Biotechnology 14: 1070.

García, M., Ortego, F., Hernández‐Crespo, P., Farinós, G. P., & Castañera, P. (2015). Inheritance, fitness costs, incomplete resistance and feeding preferences in a laboratory‐selected MON810‐resistant strain of the true armyworm Mythimna unipuncta. Pest management science.

A. J. Gassmann, J. L. Petzold-Maxwell, R. S. Keweshan and M. W. Dunbar, (2011) Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm, PLoS ONE, vol. 6 (7), pp. e22629

Aaron J. Gassmann, Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell, Eric H. Clifton, Mike W. Dunbar, Amanda M. Hoffmann, David A. Ingber, and Ryan S. Keweshan (2014) Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multiple Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize

Gunning RV, Dang HT, Kemp FC, Nicholson IC, Moores GD. (2005) New resistance mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera threatens transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.  Appl Environ Microbiol. May;71(5):2558-63.

Guo, Z., Kang, S., Chen, D., Wu, Q., Wang, S., Xie, W., … & Zhang, Y. (2015). MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth.

Huang, F., L. Buschman and R Higgins (1999) Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiens is toxin(DipelES )in the European cornborer. Science 284:965-967.

Huang F, Leonard BR, Wu X. (2007) Resistance of sugarcane borer to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 124: 117-123.

Huang F, Qureshi JA, Meagher RL Jr, Reisig DD, Head GP, et al. (2014) Cry1F Resistance in Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: Single Gene versus Pyramided Bt Maize. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112958. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112958

Alida F Janmaat and  Judith Myers (2003) Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni.  Proc Biol Sci. November 7; 270(1530): 2263–2270.

Jayaraman K. S. (2005) Monsanto’s Bollgard potentially compromised in India. Nat. Biotechnol. 23: 1326.

Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Fred L. Gould, and  Michael J. Adang (2003) Dual Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa Toxins in Heliothis virescens Suggests Multiple Mechanisms of Resistance  Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 October; 69(10): 5898–5906.

Kain, W., Song, X., Janmaat, A. F., Zhao, J. Z., Myers, J., Shelton, A. M., & Wang, P. (2014). Resistance of Trichoplusia ni populations selected by Bacillus thuringiensis sprays to pyramided Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Applied and environmental microbiology, AEM-03382.

Kruger, M., Van Rensburg, J. B. J., & Van den Berg, J. (2011). Resistance to Bt maize in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Vaalharts, South Africa. Environmental Entomology, 40(2), 477-483.

Meihis LN, Higdon ML, Siegfried BD, Miller NJ, Sappington TW, Ellersieck MR, Spencer TA & Hibbard BE (2008) Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within 3 generations of on-plant greenhouse selection.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(49): 19177-82.

Monnerat R, Martins E, Macedo C, Queiroz P, Praça L, Soares CM, et al. (2015) Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt Corn Expressing Cry1F in Brazil That Is Still Sensitive to Modified Bt Toxins. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119544. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119544

Nair, R., Kamath, S. P., Mohan, K. S., Head, G., & Sumerford, D. V. (2015). Inheritance of field‐relevant resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis protein Cry1Ac in Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected from India. Pest management science.

Oswald, K. J., French, B. W., Nielson, C. and Bagley, M. (2012), Assessment of fitness costs in Cry3Bb1-resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) laboratory colonies. Journal of Applied Entomology, 136: 730–740.

Dominic D. Reisig, North Carolina State University; Francis P.F. Reay-Jones, Clemson University. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab. Environmental Entomology, May 2015 DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvv076

Shelton AM Jr, Robertson JL and Tang JD (1993) Resistance of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies in the field. J.Econ.Entomol.86,697-705.

Storer NP, Babcock JM, Schlenz M, Meade T, Thompson GD, Bing JW, Huckaba RM (2010) Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico. J Econ Entomol 103:1031–1038

TABASHNIK, BRUCE E.; FINSON, NAOMI; JOHNSON, MARSHALL W. (1991) Managing Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Lessons from the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae    Journal of Economic Entomology,  Volume 84, Number 1, February, pp. 49-55(7)

Tabashnik BE, Gould F and Carriere Y (2004) Delaying evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crop sby decreasing dominance and heritability. J Evol Biol. 17(4): 904-12.

Tabashnik BE, Gassmann AJ, Crowder DW, Carrière Y (2008) Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory. Nat Biotechnol 26:199–202

B. E. Tabashnik, J. B. J. van Rensburg and Y. Carriére, (2009) Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data,  J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 102, pp. 2011–2025

Tabashnik BE, Gould F. (2012) Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn. J Econ Entomol. Jun;105(3):767-76.

Tabashnik BE, Brévault T, Carrière Y. (2013) Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres.  Nat Biotechnol. Jun;31(6):510-21

Van den Berg, J., et al. (2013) Pest resistance to Cry1Ab Bt maize: Field resistance, contributing factors and lessons from South Africa. Crop Protection. Vol 54 (154- 160).

van Rensburg JBJ (2007) First report of field resistance by the stemborer, Busseola fusca(Fuller) to Bt transgenic maize. S. Afr.J. Plant Soil 24(3):147-151.

Haonan Zhang, Wen Tian Jing Zhao, Lin Jin Jun, Yang Chunhui ,Liu Yihua, Yang Shuwen, Wu Kongming, Wu Jinjie Cui, Bruce E.Tabashnik and Yidong Wu (2012) Diverse genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in cotton bollworm from China.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.109, issue 26,pp. 10275-10280

Liping Zhang, B. Rogers Leonard, Mao Chen, Thomas Clark, Konasale Anilkumar, Fangneng Huang (2014) Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Ab resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 117, March 2014, Pages 26–32

Non-Target Organisms(Bt)

 A. Ashouri, Dominique Michaud, Conrad Cloutier (2001) Recombinant and classically selected factors of potato plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , variously affect the potato aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes  BioControl  December, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 401-418

Azimi, S., Rahmani, S., Tohidfar, M., Ashouri, A., Bandani, A., & Talaei-Hassanlouei, R. (2014). Interaction between Bt-transgenic cotton and the whitefly’s parasitoid, Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54(3), 272-278.

Baur ME, Boethel DJ (2003). Effect of Bt-cotton expressing Cry1A(c) on the survival and fecundity of two hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae, Encyrtidae) in the laboratory. Biol. Control, 26: 325-332

Burgio G, Lanzoni A, Accinelli G, Dinelli G, Bonetti A, Marotti I, Ramilli F. (2007) Evaluation of Bt-toxin uptake by the non-target herbivore, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding on transgenic oilseed rape.

Chen M, Ye G, Liu Z, Fang Q, Hu C, Peng Y, Shelton AM (2009) Analysis of Cry1Ab toxin bioaccumulation in a food chain of Bt rice, an herbivore and a predator. Ecotoxicology 18:230–238

Duan JJ, Lundgren JG, Naranjo S, Marvier M. (2010) Extrapolating non-target risk of Bt crops from laboratory to field. Biol Lett.6(1):74-77

Hansen, L. S., Lövei, G. L. and Székács, A. (2013), Survival and development of a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and its natural enemy, the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), on transgenic Bt maize. Pest. Manag. Sci., 69: 602–606.

Jesse LCH, Obrycki JJ. (2004) Survival of experimental cohorts of monarch larvae following exposure to transgenic Bt corn pollen and anthers. In: Oberhauser KS, Solensky MJ, eds. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press :69–75.

Lang A, Otto M. (2010) A synthesis of laboratory and field studies on the effects of transgenicBacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on non-target Lepidoptera. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 135:121–134.

Lovei GL, Andow DA, Arpaia S (2009) Transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies : a detailed review of laboratory studies.  Environ Entomol. 38(2):293-306

Meissle M, Vojtech E, Poppy GM. (2005) Effects of Bt maize-fed prey on the generalist predator Poecilus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  Transgenic Res.  Apr;14(2):123-32.

JOHN J. OBRYCKI, JOHN E. LOSEY, ORLEY R. TAYLOR, and LAURA C. H. JESSE (2001) Transgenic Insecticidal Corn: Beyond Insecticidal Toxicity to Ecological Complexity  BioScience May : Vol. 51, Issue 5, pg(s) 353-361

Obryki, J.J., J.R. Ruberson, J.E. Losey. (2004) Interactions between natural enemies and transgenic insecticidal crops. p. 83-206. In L.E. Ehler et al. (ed) Genetics, evolution and biological control. CABI Publ., UK.;jsessionid=1E0EA420B2896BA7A21AE0AF9C5A442D

Joe N Perry, Yann Devos, Salvatore Arpaia, Detlef Bartsch, Christina Ehlert, Achim Gathmann, Rosemary S Hails, Niels B Hendriksen, Jozsef Kiss, Antoine Messéan, Sylvie Mestdagh, Gerd Neemann, Marco Nuti, Jeremy B Sweet, and  Christoph C Tebbe  (2012)  Estimating the effects of Cry1F Bt-maize pollen on non-target Lepidoptera using a mathematical model of exposure  J Appl Ecol.  February; 49(1): 29–37.

Ponsard, Sergine, Andrew P. Gutierrez and Nicholas J. Mills 2002. Effect of Bt-toxin (Cry1Ac) in transgenic cotton on the adult longevity of four Heteropteran predators. Environmental Entomology31: 1197-1205.

Rovenska, G., R. Zemek, J.E.U. Schmidt, and A. Hilbeck (2005) Altered host plant preference ofTetranychus urticae and prey preference of its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) on transgenic Cry3Bb-eggplants. Biological Control 33: 293-300.

Wold SJ, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD, Venette RC. In-field monitoring of beneficial insect populations in transgenic sweet corn expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. J Entomol Sci 2001; 36: 177.

Yuan Y, Ke X, Chen F, Krogh PH, Ge F. (2011) Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet.  Environ Pollut. Dec;159(12):3714-20.

ZHOU Ji, WEI Bao-Yang, LI Wen-Jing, WANG Zhi (2014) The effect of Cry1Ab protein in embryo development and chemical content in Pardosa pseudoannulata.  Acta Arachnologica Sinica 2014, 23 (1)

Zwahlen C, Andow DA. (2005) Field evidence for the exposure of ground beetles to Cry1Ab from transgenic corn.  Environ Biosafety Res.  Apr-Jun;4(2):113-7.


Rusty Crayfish

Linn, M. D., & Moore, P. A. (2014). The Effects of Bt Corn on Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes Rusticus) Growth and Survival. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 67(3), 436-443.

Water fleas

Bøhn T, Primicerio R, Hessen DO, Traavik T. (2008) Reduced fitness of Daphnia magna fed a Bt-transgenic maize variety.  Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Nov;55(4):584-92.

Thomas Bøhn, Terje Traavik, and  Raul Primicerio (2010) Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize  Ecotoxicology. February; 19(2): 419–430.


Bakonyi G, Szira F, Kiss I, Villányi I, Seres A, Székács A (2006) Preference tests with collembolas on isogenic and Bt-maize. Eur J Soil Biol 42:S132–S135



Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L. Sears, M. K., Sumerford, D. V., and    Lewis, L. C. (2004) Effects of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers on monarch butterfly larvae. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1109-1115.

Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L., Prasifka, J. R., and Lewis, L. C. (2005) Effects on fitness and behavior of monarch butterfly larvae exposed to a combination of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers and pollen. Environ.    Entomol. 34:944-952.

B. Darvas, A. Csóti, A. Gharib, L. Peregovits, L. Ronkay, É. Lauber and A. L. Polgár (2004) Some data to the risk analysis of Bt-corn pollen and protected Lepidoptera species in Hungary  Növényvédelem, vol. 40, pp. 441–449.

Dively G.P., Rose R., Sears M.K., Hellmich R.L., Stanley- Horn D.E., Calvin D.D. Russo J.M. & P.L.Anderson. (2004) Effects on monarch butterfly larvae(Lepidoptera: Danaidae)after continuous exposure to Cry1Ab expressing corn during anthesis.  Environmental Entomology33:1116-1125.

Felke M, Langenbruch GA, Feiertag S, Kassa A. (2010) Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae) Environmental Biosafety Research. ;9:5–12.

Laura C. Hansen Jesse, John J. Obrycki (2000) Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: lethal effects on the monarch butterfly Oecologia, October, Volume 125, Issue 2, pp 241-248

Niels Holst, Andreas Lang, Gabor Lövei, Mathias Otto (2013)  Increased mortality is predicted of Inachis io larvae caused by Bt-maize pollen in European farmland  Ecological Modelling 250 (2013) 126–133

Lang A, Vojtech E. (2006) The effects of pollen consumption of transgenic Bt maize on the common swallowtail,Papilio machaon L.(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).  Basic and Applied Ecology; 7:296-306

John E. Losey, Linda S. Rayor & Maureen E. Carter (1999) Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae  Nature 399, 214 (20 May)

Paula DP, Andow DA, Timbó RV, Sujii ER, Pires CS, Fontes EM (2014) Uptake and transfer of a Bt toxin by a Lepidoptera to its eggs and effects on its offspring.  PLoS One. 2014 Apr 18;9(4):e95422.

Patricia L Prasifka, Richard L Hellmich, Jarrad R Prasifka, Leslie C Lewis (2007) Effects of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers on the movement of monarch butterfly larvae.  Environmental Entomology Volume: 36, Issue: 1, Pages: 228-233

Stanley-Horn D.E ,Dively GP, Hellmich RL, Mattila HR, Sears MK, Rose R, Jesse LC, Losey JE, Obrycki JJ and Lewis L (2001) Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (21): 11931-11936.

Zangerl AR, McKenna D, Wraight CL, Carroll M, Ficarello P, Warner Rand MR Berenbaum (2001) Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and blackswallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proc. National Academy of Science USA 98:11908-11912.


Han P, Niu CY, Lei CL, Cui JJ, Desneux N. (2010) Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Ecotoxicology. Nov;19(8):1452-9.

Ricardo RAMIREZ-ROMERO, Josette CHAUFAUX, Minh-Hà PHAM-DELÈGUE (2005)  Effects of Cry1Ab protoxin, deltamethrin and imidaclopridon the foraging activity and the learning performancesof the honeybee Apis mellifera, a comparative approach   Apidologie 36 601–611

Ramirez-Romero R, Desneux N, Decourtye A, Chaffiol A, Pham-Delègue MH. (2008) Does Cry1Ab protein affect learning performances of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)? Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. Jun;70(2):327-33

SABUGOSA-MADEIRA, B.; ABREU, I.; RIBEIRO, H.; CUNHA, M. Bt Transgenic maize pollen and silent poisoning of the hive. Journal of Apicultural Research, v. 46, n. 1, p. 57-58, 2007.

SABUGOSA-MADEIRA, B. E. R. N. A. R. D. O., & ABREU, I. (2009). O pólen de milho geneticamente modificado. Possíveis implicaçoes no desequilíbrio ecológico das colmeias. Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciencias, 28, 71-85.

Dung Beetle

Campos, R. C., & Hernández, M. I. (2015). Changes in the dynamics of functional groups in communities of dung beetles in Atlantic forest fragments adjacent to transgenic maize crops. Ecological Indicators, 49, 216-227.

Green Lacewing(Bt)

DUTTON A.; KLEIN H.; ROMEIS J.; BIGLER F.  (2002) Uptake of Bt-toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea  Ecological Entomology Volume 27,  Issue 4,  pages 441–447, August

Hilbeck A., Baumgartner M, Fried PM and Bigler F (1998) Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperlacarnea. Environmental Entomology 276:480- 487.;jsessionid=7C2D477A16F33C54B3E6F95D032BA8C7

Hilbeck, A., Moar, W. J., Pusztai-Carey, M., Filippini, A. and Bigler, F. (1999), Prey-mediated effects of Cry1Ab toxin and protoxin and Cry2A protoxin on the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 91: 305–316. doi: 10.1046/j.1570-7458.1999.00497.x

Hilbeck, Angelika; Moar, William J.; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Filippini, Agata; Bigler, Franz (1998) Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin to the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Environmental Entomology (1998), 27(5), 1255-1263

Meier, M. and A. Hilbeck (2001) Influence of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on prey preference of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Basic and Applied Ecology 2: 35-44.

Obrist L.B., Dutton A.,Romeis J. & Bigler F. (2006)  Biological activity of Cry1Ab toxin expressed by Bt maize following ingestion by herbivorous arthropods and exposure of the predator Chrysoperla carnea.  Bio Control 51:31-48.


Angelika Hilbeck, Joanna M McMillan, Matthias Meier, Anna Humbel, Juanita Schläpfer-Miller and Miluse Trtikova (2012) A controversy re-visited: Is the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata adversely affected by Bt toxins?  Environmental Sciences Europe, 24:10

Hilbeck A ,Meier M, Trtikova M. (2012) Underlying reasons of the controversy over adverse effects of Bt toxins on lady beetle and lacewing

larvae.  Environmental Sciences Europe.24:9

Jörg E. U. Schmidt, Cora U. Braun, Lisa P. Whitehouse, Angelika Hilbeck

(2009) Effects of Activated Bt Transgene Products (Cry1Ab, Cry3Bb) on Immature Stages of the Ladybird Adalia bipunctata in Laboratory Ecotoxicity Testing  Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  February Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 221-228

Parasitoid Wasp

Desneux, N., Ramírez-Romero, R., Bokonon-Ganta, A. H., & Bernal, J. S. (2010). Attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris to host (Spodoptera frugiperda) frass is affected by transgenic maize. Ecotoxicology, 19(7), 1183-1192.


Frances van der Merwe, Carlos Bezuidenhout, Johnnie van den Berg, and Mark Maboeta (2012) Effects of Cry1Ab Transgenic Maize on Lifecycle and Biomarker Responses of the Earthworm,Eisenia Andrei   Sensors (Basel). December; 12(12): 17155–17167.

M.L. Vercesi , P.H. Krogh , M. Holmstrup (2005 ) Can Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn residues and Bt-corn plants affect life-history traits in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa?  Applied Soil Ecology (Volume 32, Issue 2), 21.jun.06

Zwahlen C, Hilbeck A, Howald R and  Nentwig W. (2003) Effects of transgenic Bt corn litter on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Molecular Ecology 12(8):1077-1086.



Grisolia CK, Oliveira R, Domingues I, Oliveira-Filho EC, Monerat RG, Soares AM. (2009) Genotoxic evaluation of different delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis on zebrafish adults and development in early life stages.  Mutat Res. Jan 31;672(2):119-23.



Douville M, Gagne F, André C and Blaise C. (2009) Occurrence of the transgenic corn cry1Ab gene in freshwater mussels(Elliptio complanata)near cornfields: evidence of exposure by bacterial ingestion.  Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72:1725


J. D. HARWOOD & J. J. OBRYCKI (2006) The detection and decay of Cry1Ab Bt-endotoxins within non-target slugs, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Pulmonata), following consumption of transgenic corn  Biocontrol Science and Technology, 2006; 16(1/2): 77/88


Höss S, Arndt M, Baumgarte S, Tebbe C.C, Nguyen H.T. and Jehle J.A.(2008) Effects of transgenic corn and Cry1Ab protein on the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety  70(2):334340.

Need to Be Categorized

Accinelli, C.; Screpanti, C.; Vicari, A. & Catizone, P. (2004) Influence of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki on the degradation of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium in soil samples.  Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,103, 497-507.


Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen, Vinicius Vilperte, Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto, Carina Macagnan Rover, Terje Ingemar Traavik and Rubens Onofre Nodari (2014)  Effect of stacking insecticidal cry and herbicide toleranceepsps transgenes on transgenic maize proteome.   BMC Plant Biology 2014, 14:346


Aguilera M, Querci M, Balla B, Prospero A, Ermolli M, Van denEede G (2008) A Qualitative Approach for the Assessment of Genetic Stability of the MON810 Trait in Commercial Seed Maize Varieties.  Food Anal .Methods 1:252258


Andow DA, Lövei GL, Arpaia S (2006) Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops. Nat Biotechnol 24:749–751


Monica Andreassen, Elena Rocca, Thomas Bøhn, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark, Johnnie van den Berg, Martinus Løvik, Terje Traavik & Unni Cecilie Nygaard (2014)  Humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after airway administration of Bacillus thuringiensisCry1Ab and MON810 cry1Ab-transgenic maize.   Food and Agricultural Immunology,  11 Dec 2014


Aris A, Leblanc S. (2011) Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reprod Toxicol. May;31(4):528-33


A. Ashouri, Dominique Michaud, Conrad Cloutier (2001) Recombinant and classically selected factors of potato plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , variously affect the potato aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes  BioControl  December, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 401-418


Gábor Bakonyi, Anna Dolezsai and András Székács (2010) Bt-maize (MON 810) effect on the collembolan Folsomia candida – some new aspects In B. Darvas et al. Eds (2010) Abs. GM-plants symposium of IXth ECE, page 206.


Bøhn, T., Primicerio, R.,and Traavik, T. (2012) The German ban on GM maize MON810: scientifically justified or unjustified? Environmental Sciences Europe 2012, 24:22


Bondzio A, Lodemann U, Weise C, Einspanier R (2013) Cry1Ab Treatment Has No Effects on Viability of Cultured Porcine Intestinal Cells, but Triggers Hsp70 Expression. PLoS ONE 8(7): e67079


Thierry Brévault, Shannon Heuberger, Min Zhang, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Xinzhi Nic, Luke Masson, Xianchiun Li, Bruce E. Tabashnik, and Yves Carrière, (2013)  Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management  PNAS  April 9, vol. 110 no. 15 5806-5811


Bruns HA, Abel CA (2003) Nitrogen fertility effects on Bt delta-endotoxin and nitrogen concentrations of maize during-early growth. Agron J 95:207–211


Bruns H.A. & Abel C.A. (2007) Effects of nitrogen fertility on Bt endotoxin levels in corn. Journal of Entomological Science 42(1):3534


H. Arnold Bruns (2014)  Stacked-Gene Hybrids Were Not Found to Be Superior to Glyphosate-Resistant or Non-GMO Corn Hybrids.   Crop Management 2014. Vol 13:–. No.1


Büchs, W.; Raubuch, M.; Prescher, S.; Behr, K.; Müller, A.; Roose, K. (2007) Impact of Ostrinia-resistant Bt-maize on microbial and invertebrate decomposer communities in field soils.  Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft No. 410 pp. 26-32;jsessionid=32C29EAED66F4560BF30ECAFF41F0581


Cao QJ, Xia H, Yang X, Lu BR. (2009) Performance of hybrids between weedy rice and insect-resistant transgenic rice under field experiments: implication for environmental biosafety assessment.  J Integr Plant Biol.  Dec;51(12):1138-48.


Chen, C. X., Wu, E., Yang, Y. Z., & Su, H. H. (2014). The transfer of Bt insecticidal protein to higher tropic levels via a transgenic cotton, then beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their natural enemies. The Canadian Entomologist, 146(01), 1-7.


Chilcutt CH. and Tabashnik BE. (2004) Contamination of refuges by Bacillus thuringensis toxin genes from transgenic maize.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:7526-7529.


Chokshi, Atul H. (2010) Bt brinjal: premature approval for cultivation.  Current Science, Vol. 98 Issue 6, p734


Clark B.W, Phillips T.A. & Coats J.R. (2005) Environmental fate and effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins from transgenic crops:a review.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53:4643-4653.


Tom Clarke, “Corn Could Make Cotton Pests Bt. Resistant,” Nature, Dec. 2, 2002.


Cloutier C, Boudreault S and Michaud D. (2008) Impact of Colorado potato beetle resistant potatoes on non-target arthropods : a meta-analysis of factors potentially involved in the failure of a Bt transgenic plant.  Cahiers Agricultures 17(4):388-394


Carlos E Coviella, David JW Morgan, John T Trumble (2000) Interactions of Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization: Effects on Production of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Transgenic Plants.  Environ. Entomol.29(4):781-787


Darvas Béla, Lauber Éva, Bakonyi Gábor, Békési László, Székács András, Papp László, (2007) A MON 810-es GM-kukoricák környezettudományi megítélése  Magyar Tudomány, 2007/08 1047.


Ingrid de Souza Freire, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela, Lilian Carla Pereira Barbosa, Erica Soares Martins, Rose Gomes Monnerat, and Cesar Koppe Grisolia (2014) Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice.  Toxins (Basel). Oct 2014; 6(10): 2872–2885.!po=88.4615


Antonio DiTommaso, Matthew R. Ryan, Charles L. Mohler, Daniel C. Brainard, Rachel E. Shuler, Leslie L. Allee, and John E. Losey (2014) Effect of Cry3Bb Bt Corn and Tefluthrin on Postdispersal Weed Seed Predation. Weed Science In-Press.


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