2,4-D Studies

The following is a list of peer reviewed studies that have found health and/or environmental harm from 2,4-D:


N B Akesson, and W E Yates (1964) Problems Relating to Application of Agricultural Chemicals and Resulting Drift Residues Annual Review of Entomology Vol. 9: 285-318 http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.en.09.010164.001441?journalCode=ento&

Amer SM, Aly FA. (2001) Genotoxic effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and its metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol in mouse. Mutat Res. 2001 Jul 25;494(1-2):1-12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11423340

Caroline Cox (2005) Herbicide Factsheet 2,4-D.  JOURNAL OF PESTICIDE REFORM/ WINTER 2005 • VOL. 25, NO. 4.  http://www.pesticide.org/get-the-facts/pesticide-factsheets/factsheets/24d-factsheet

Caroline Cox and Michael Surgan (2006) Unidentified Inert Ingredients in Pesticides: Implications for Human and Environmental Health Environ Health Perspect. 2006 December; 114(12): 1803–1806. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1764160/

Greenlee AR, Ellis, TM, Berg RL (2004): Low-dose agrochemicals and lawn-care pesticides induce developmental toxicity in murine preimplantation embryos. Environmental health perspectives 112(6):703-709. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241965/

Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1992) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Response to Simulated Herbicide Spray Drift Weed Technology Vol. 6, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 1992), pp. 956-960 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3988318?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103342957983

Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1993) Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Response to Simulated Herbicide Drift Weed Technology Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar.), pp. 97-102 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3987967?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103343299053

Bortolozzi A, Duffard R, Antonelli M, Evangelista de Duffard AM. (2002) Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Jun;965:314-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12105107

BREEZE, V. G. and WEST, C. J. (1987), Effects of 2,4-D butyl vapour on the growth of six crop species. Annals of Applied Biology, 111: 185–191. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1987.tb01445.x/abstract

Castilla, A. M., T. Dauwe, I. Mora, J. Malone, and R. Guitart. (2010) Nitrates and Herbicides Cause Higher Mortality Than the Traditional Organic Fertilizers on the Grain Beetle, Tenebrio Molitor. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 84, no. 1 (Jan): 101-05.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19809774

Evangelista de Duffard AM, Orta C, Duffard R. (1990) Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology. Winter;11(4):563-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2087283

Donald DB, Cessna AJ, Sverko E, Glozier NE. (2007) Pesticides in surface drinking-water supplies of the northern Great Plains. Environ Health Perspect. Aug;115(8):1183-91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1940079/

Egan JF, Maxwell BD, Mortensen DA, Ryan MR, Smith RG. (2011) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-resistant crops and the potential for evolution of 2,4-D-resistant weeds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Mar 15;108(11):E37; http://www.pnas.org/content/108/11/E37.full

Elmer Robinson & Lawrence L. Fox (1978) 2,4-D Herbicides in Central Washington Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association Volume 28, Issue 10, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00022470.1978.10470700#.Utaqj0ko7VJ

M. Eriksson, L. Hardell, N. O. Berg, T. Moller, and O. Axelson, (1981) Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 27–33 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1008794/

M. Eriksson, L. Hardell, H. Malker, and J. Weiner, (1992) Malignant lymphoproliferative diseases in occupations with potential exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or dioxins: a register-based study American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 305–312 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajim.4700220304/abstract

John D. Everitt and J. Wayne Keeling (2009) Cotton Growth and Yield Response to Simulated 2,4-D and Dicamba Drift. Weed Technology: October 2009, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 503-506. http://www.wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WT-08-061.1

A. Faustini, L. Settimi, R. Pacifici, V. Fano, P. Zuccaro, and F. Forastiere, (1996) “Immunological changes among farmers exposed to phenoxy herbicides: preliminary observations,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 583–585 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1128552/

Richard Frank, B. Steve Clegg, Brian D. Ripley, Heinz E. Braun (1987) Investigations of pesticide contaminations in rural wells, 1979–1984, Ontario, Canada Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology January, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 9-22 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01055355#page-1

Garry VF, Schreinemachers D, Harkins ME, J. Griffith (1996). “Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota,” Environ Health Perspect 104:394-399. http://www.herc.org/news/pesticides/garry.html

V. F. Garry, R. E. Tarone, L. Long, J. Griffith, J. T. Kelly, and B. Burroughs (1996) Pesticide appliers with mixed pesticide exposure: G-banded analysis and possible relationship to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 5, pp. 11–16 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8770460

V F Garry, R E Tarone, I R Kirsch, J M Abdallah, D P Lombardi, L K Long, B L Burroughs, D B Barr, and J S Kesner (2001) Biomarker correlations of urinary 2,4-D levels in foresters: genomic instability and endocrine disruption. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 May; 109(5): 495–500. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240309/

J. E. R. Greenshields, E. D. Putt (1958) THE EFFECTS OF 2,4-D SPRAY DRIFT ON SUNFLOWERS Canadian Journal of Plant Science, , 38(2): 234-240,http://pubs.aic.ca/doi/abs/10.4141/cjps58-037

L. Hardell and A. Sandstrom, (1979) Case-control study: soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 711–717 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2009993/

L. Hardell, M. Eriksson, P. Lenner, and E. Lundgren, (1981) Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: a case-control study,”British Journal of Cancer, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 169–176 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2010513/

L. Hardell and O. Axelson, (1982) Soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, and exposure to phenoxyacids or chlorophenols,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8286, pp. 1408–1409

L. Hardell and N. O. Bengtsson, (1983) Epidemiological study of socioeconomic factors and clinical findings in Hodgkin’s disease, and reanalysis of previous data regarding chemical exposure British Journal of Cancer, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 217–225 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2011442/

L. Hardell, M. Eriksson, and A. Degerman (1994) Exposure to phenoxyacetic acids, chlorophenols, or organic solvents in relation to histopathology, stage, and anatomical localization of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2386–238 http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/9/2386.abstract

Hayes, H. M., Tarone, R. E., Cantor, K. P., Jessen, C. R., McCurnin, D. M., & Richardson, R. C. (1991). Case-control study of canine malignant lymphoma: positive association with dog owner’s use of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 83(17), 1226-1231.  http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/83/17/1226

S. K. Hoar, A. Blair, F. F. Holmes, Boysen CD, Robel RJ, Hoover R, Fraumeni JF Jr. (1986) Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 256, no. 9, pp. 1141–1147 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3801091

ROSS E. HUTCHINS (1953) 2,4-D Herbicides Pose Threat to Cotton and Other Susceptible Crops. Science 25 December: 782-783. [DOI:10.1126/science.118.3078.782]http://www.sciencemag.org/content/118/3078/782.extract?sid=5f16e2e1-8ac1-46e0-883b-e6a10084b8e0

JOE L. KEY and DONALD S. GALITZ (1959) Growth Inhibitor in Immature Soybean Seeds and 2,4-D-Sprayed Soybean Seedlings. Science 13 November: 1340-1341. [DOI:10.1126/science130.3385.1340] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/130/3385/1340.abstract?sid=5f16e2e1-8ac1-46e0-883b-e6a10084b8e0

Knapp DW, Peer WA, Conteh A, Diggs AR, Cooper BR, Glickman NW, Bonney PL, Stewart JC, Glickman LT, Murphy AS. (2013) Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application. Sci Total Environ. Jul 1;456-457:34-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23584031

Greg R. Kruger, Vince M. Davis, Stephen C. Weller and William G. Johnson (2008). “Response and Survival of Rosette-Stage Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) after Exposure to 2,4-D,” Weed Science 56: 748-752 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/25148589?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103345468263

Greg R. Kruger, Vince M. Davis, Stephen C. Weller, and William G. Johnson (2010). “Growth and Seed Production of Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Populations after Exposure to Postemergence 2,4-D,” Weed Science 58: 413-419. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-10-00022.1?journalCode=wees

LaChapelle AM, Ruygrok ML, Toomer M, Oost JJ, Monnie ML, Swenson JA, Compton AA, Stebbins-Boaz B. (2007) The hormonal herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, inhibits Xenopus oocyte maturation by targeting translational and post-translational mechanisms. Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Jan;23(1):20-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17055699

Leon, R. G., Ferrell, J. A., & Brecke, B. J. (2014). Impact of Exposure to 2, 4-D and Dicamba on Peanut Injury and Yield. Weed Technology, 28(3), 465-470.  http://www.wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WT-D-13-00187.1

C Leonard, C M Burke, C O’Keane, and J S Doyle (1997) “Golf ball liver”: agent orange hepatitis.  Gut. 1997 May; 40(5): 687–688.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1027176/

McDuffie HH, Pahwa P, McLaughlin JR, Spinelli JJ, Fincham S, Dosman JA, Robson D, Skinnider LF, Choi NW.(2001) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and specific pesticide exposures in men: cross-Canada study of pesticides and health. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.;10:1155–63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11700263

Marcia G. Nishioka ,Hazel M. Burkholder , Marielle C. Brinkman , and Sydney M. Gordon (1996) Measuring Transport of Lawn-Applied Herbicide Acids from Turf to Home:  Correlation of Dislodgeable 2,4-D Turf Residues with Carpet Dust and Carpet Surface Residues Environ. Sci. Technol., 1996, 30 (11), pp 3313–3320 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es960111r

Marcia G. Nishioka , Hazel M. Burkholder , and Marielle C. Brinkman (1999) Distribution of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in Floor Dust throughout Homes Following Homeowner and Commercial Lawn Applications:  Quantitative Effects of Children, Pets, and Shoes Environ. Sci. Technol., 1999, 33 (9), pp 1359–1365 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es980580o

M G Nishioka, R G Lewis, M C Brinkman, H M Burkholder, C E Hines, and J R Menkedick (2001) Distribution of 2,4-D in air and on surfaces inside residences after lawn applications: comparing exposure estimates from various media for young children. Environ Health Perspect. November; 109(11): 1185–1191. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240481/

I. N. OKA and DAVID PIMENTEL (1976) Herbicide (2,4-D) Increases Insect and Pathogen Pests on Corn Science 16 July: 239-240. [DOI:10.1126/science.193.4249.239]http://www.sciencemag.org/content/193/4249/239.abstract?sid=5f16e2e1-8ac1-46e0-883b-e6a10084b8e0

Pearce N, McLean D.(2005) Agricultural exposures and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31 Suppl 1:18-25; discussion 5-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16190145

B. Persson, A. M. Dahlander, M. Fredriksson, H. N. Brage, C. G. Ohlson, and O. Axelson, (1989) Malignant lymphomas and occupational exposures, British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 516–520 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2775671

B. Persson, M. Fredriksson, K. Olsen, B. Boeryd, and O. Axelson, (1993) Some occupational exposures as risk factors for malignant lymphomas, Cancer, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 1773–1778 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8348507

Reuber MD (1983) Carcinogenicity and toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid.  Sci Total Environ. 1983 Dec 1;31(3):203-18.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6362003

C. Rubinstein, C. Jone, J. E. Trosko, and C.-C. Chang, (1984) Inhibition of intercellular communication in cultures of chinese hamster V79 cells by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Toxicological Sciences, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 731–739 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6510604

Dina M Schreinemachers (2003) Birth malformations and other adverse perinatal outcomes in four U.S. Wheat-producing states. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 July; 111(9): 1259–1264. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241584/

S. Soloneski, N. V. González, M. A. Reigosa, and M. L. Larramendy, “Herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-induced cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes in vitro in presence of erythrocytes,” Cell Biology International, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1316–1322 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17606385

GLEN STATEN (1946) Contamination of Cotton Fields by 2,4-d or Hormone-Type Weed Sprays JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY Vol. 38 No. 6, p. 536-544

Stürtz N, Deis RP, Jahn GA, Duffard R, Evangelista de Duffard AM. (2008) Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior. Toxicology May 21;247(2-3):73-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18420331

Stürtz N, Jahn GA, Deis RP, Rettori V, Duffard RO, Evangelista de Duffard AM.(2010) Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on milk transfer to the litter and prolactin release in lactating rats. Toxicology. Apr 30;271(1-2):13-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20122984

Torstensson NT, Lundgren LN, Stenström J. (1989) Influence of climatic and edaphic factors on persistence of glyphosate and 2,4-D in forest soils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. Oct;18(2):230-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2806176

Vigário, A. F., & Sabóia-Morais, S. M. (2014). Effects of the 2, 4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 34(6), 523-528.  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0100-736X2014000600005&script=sci_arttext

Mary H. Ward, Jay Lubin, James Giglierano, Joanne S. Colt, Calvin Wolter, Nural Bekiroglu, David Camann, Patricia Hartge, John R. Nuckols (2006) Proximity to Crops and Residential Exposure to Agricultural Herbicides in Iowa Environ Health Perspect. 2006 June; 114(6): 893–897. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1480526/

Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Babbitt, Paula A.; Saal, Robert C.; Vaught, Jimmie B.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Blair, Aaron (1990) A Case-Control Study of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2, 4-D) in Eastern Nebraska http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/1990/09000/A_Case_Control_Study_of_Non_Hodgkin_s_Lymphoma_and.4.aspx

Zahm, SH & Blair, A (1992). Pesticides and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cancer Research 52: 5485s-5488s. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/19_Supplement/5485s.long;